Reference Index - Disease & Conditions

Back to Health Library

Meningococcal lesions on the back
Meningococcal lesions on the back


Meningitis - meningococcal

Definition:

Meningococcal meningitis is an infection that results in swelling and irritation (inflammation) of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord.

See also:



Alternative Names:

Meningococcal meningitis



Causes, incidence, and risk factors:

Meningococcal meningitis is caused by the bacteria Neisseria meningitidis (also known as meningococcus).

Most cases of meningococcal meningitis occur in children and adolescents. Meningococcus is the most common cause of bacterial meningitis in children and the second most common cause of bacterial meningitis in adults.

The infection occurs more often in winter or spring. It may cause local epidemics at boarding schools, college dormitories, or military bases.

Risk factors include recent exposure to meningococcal meningitis and a recent upper respiratory infection.



Symptoms:

Symptoms usually come on quickly, and may include:

Other symptoms that can occur with this disease:

  • Agitation
  • Bulging fontanelles
  • Decreased consciousness
  • Poor feeding or irritability in children
  • Rapid breathing
  • Unusual posture with the head and neck arched backwards (opisthotonos )


Signs and tests:

Physical examination will show:

  • Fast heart rate
  • Fever
  • Mental status changes
  • Rash
  • Stiff neck

For any patient who is suspected of having meningitis, it is important to perform a lumbar puncture ("spinal tap "), in which spinal fluid (known as cerebrospinal fluid, or CSF) is collected for testing.

Tests that may be done include:



Treatment:

Treatment with antibiotics should be started as soon as possible. Ceftriaxone is one of the most commonly used antibiotics for meningococcal meningitis. Penicillin in high doses is almost always effective, too.

If the antibiotic is not working and the health care provider suspects antibiotic resistance, chloramphenicol may be used. Sometimes corticosteroids may be used, especially in children.

People in close contact with someone who has meningococcal meningitis should be given antibiotics to prevent infection. Such people include:

  • Household members
  • Roommates in dormitories
  • Those who come into close and long-term contact with an infected person


Support Groups:



Expectations (prognosis):

Early treatment improves the outcome. The death rate ranges from 5% - 15%. Young children and adults over 50 have the highest risk of death.



Complications:

Calling your health care provider:

Call the local emergency number (such as 911) or go to an emergency room if you suspect meningitis in a young child who has the following symptoms:

  • Feeding difficulties
  • High-pitched cry
  • Irritability
  • Persistent unexplained fever

Call the local emergency number if you develop any of the serious symptoms listed above. Meningitis can quickly become a life-threatening illness.



Prevention:

All family and close contacts (especially in health care or school settings) of people with this type of meningitis should begin antibiotic treatment as soon as possible to prevent spread of the infection. Ask your health care provider about this during the first visit.

Close contacts in the same household, school, or day care center should be watched for early signs of the disease as soon as the first case is diagnosed. Always use good hygiene habits, such as washing hands before and after changing a diaper, or after using the bathroom.

Vaccines are effective for controlling epidemics. They are currently recommended for:

  • College students in their first year living in dormitories
  • Military recruits
  • Travelers to certain parts of the world


References:

Swartz MN. Meningitis: bacterial, viral, and other. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 437.




Review Date: 9/15/2010
Reviewed By: David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine; and Jatin M. Vyas, PhD, MD, Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Assistant in Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Massachusetts General Hospital. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
adam.com


Greater Baltimore Medical Center | 6701 North Charles Street | Baltimore, MD 21204 | (443) 849-2000 | TTY (800) 735-2258
© 2014  GBMC. This website is for informational purposes only and not intended as medical advice or a substitute for a consultation with a professional healthcare provider.