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Central nervous system
Central nervous system


Mononeuritis multiplex

Definition:

Mononeuritis multiplex is a nervous system disorder that involves damage to at least two separate nerve areas.



Alternative Names:

Mononeuropathy multiplex; Multifocal neuropathy; Peripheral neuropathy - mononeuritis multiplex



Causes, incidence, and risk factors:

Mononeuritis multiplex is a form of damage to one or more peripheral nerves -- the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord. It is a group of symptoms (syndrome), not a disease.

However, certain diseases can cause the injury or nerve damage that leads to the symptoms of mononeuritis multiplex. Common conditions include:

Less common causes include:



Symptoms:

Symptoms will depend on the specific nerves involved, and may include:

  • Loss of bladder or bowel control
  • Loss of sensation in one or more areas of the body
  • Paralysis in one or more areas of the body
  • Tingling, burning, pain, or other abnormal sensations in one or more areas of the body
  • Weakness in one or more areas of the body


Signs and tests:

A detailed history is needed to determine the possible cause of the disorder. Examination and neuromuscular testing may show a loss of feeling and movement due to problems with specific nerves. Reflexes may be abnormal.

To diagnose mononeuritis multiplex, there usually needs to be problems with two or more unrelated nerve areas. Common nerves affected are the:

Tests may include:

Other tests may include:



Treatment:

The goals of treatment are to:

  • Treat the illness that is causing the problem, if possible
  • Provide supportive care to maximize independence
  • Control symptoms (this may include controlling blood sugar levels for diabetics, nutritional supplementation, or medically treating conditions)

To improve independence, treatments may include:

  • Occupational therapy
  • Orthopedic help (for example, appliances such as wheelchairs, braces, and splints)
  • Physical therapy (for example, exercises and retraining to increase muscle strength)
  • Vocational therapy

Safety is an important consideration for people with sensation or movement difficulties. Lack of muscle control and decreased sensation may increase the risk of falls or injuries. Safety measures for people with movement difficulty include:

  • Adequate lighting (including leaving lights on at night)
  • Railings
  • Removing obstacles (such as loose rugs that may slip on the floor)
  • Testing water temperature before bathing
  • Wearing protective shoes (no open toes or high heels)

Check shoes often for grit or rough spots that may injure the feet.

People with decreased sensation should check their feet (or other affected area) often for bruises, open skin areas, or other injuries that may go unnoticed. These injuries may become severely infected because the pain nerves of the area are not signaling the injury.

People with mononeuropathy multiplex are prone to new nerve injuries at pressure points such as knees and elbows. They should avoid putting pressure on these areas, for example by not leaning on the elbows, crossing the knees, or holding similar positions.

Medications that may help include:

  • Over-the-counter pain medicines (ibuprofen or acetaminophen) or prescription pain medications may be needed to control pain (neuralgia ).
  • Anticonvulsants (gabapentin, phenytoin, carbamazepine, or pregabalin) or antidepressants (amitriptyline, nortriptyline, or duloxetine), may be used to reduce stabbing pains.

Whenever possible, avoid or minimize the use of medications to reduce the risk of side effects.

Positioning (the use of frames to keep bedclothes off of a tender body part) and other measures may help control pain. Autonomic symptoms can be difficult to treat or respond poorly to treatment.



Support Groups:



Expectations (prognosis):

If the cause can be found and successfully treated, and if damage is limited, a full recovery is possible. The amount of disability can range from no disability, to partial or complete loss of movement, function, or sensation.

Nerve pain may be quite uncomfortable and can last for a long time. If this occurs, see a pain specialist to ensure that all pain treatment options are available to you.



Complications:
  • Deformity, loss of tissue or muscle mass
  • Disturbances of organ functions
  • Medication side effects
  • Repeated or unnoticed injury to the affected area due to lack of sensation
  • Relationship problems due to impotence


Calling your health care provider:

Call your health care provider if you notice signs of mononeuritis multiplex.



Prevention:

Preventive measures vary depending on the specific disorder. Eating a proper diet and taking medication for diabetes may help prevent mononeuritis multiplex from developing.



References:

Shy ME. Peripheral neuropathies. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier;2007:chap 446.




Review Date: 9/13/2010
Reviewed By: Daniel B. Hoch, PhD, MD, Assistant Professor of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.

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