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Vernal conjunctivitis

Definition:

Vernal conjunctivitis is long-term (chronic) swelling (inflammation) of the outer lining of the eyes due to an allergic reaction.

See also:



Causes, incidence, and risk factors:

Vernal conjunctivitis often occurs in people with a strong family history of allergies, such as allergic rhinitis , asthma , and eczema. It is most common in young males, and most often occurs during the spring and summer.



Symptoms:
  • Burning eyes
  • Discomfort in bright light (photophobia )
  • Itching eyes
  • The area around the cornea where the white of the eye and the cornea meet (limbus) may become rough and swollen
  • The underside of the eyelids may become rough and covered with bumps and a whitish mucus
  • Watering eyes


Signs and tests:

The health care provider will perform an eye exam.



Treatment:

Avoid rubbing the eyes, because this can irritate them more.

Cold compresses (a clean cloth soaked in cold water and then placed over the closed eyes) may be soothing.

Lubricating drops may also help soothe the eye.

If home-care measures do not help, you may need to be treated by your health care provider. This may include:

  • Antihistamine or anti-inflammatory drops that are placed into the eye
  • Eye drops that prevent a type of white blood cell called mast cells from releasing histamine (these drops are given together with antihistamines for moderate or severe reactions)
  • Mild steroids that are applied directly to the surface of the eye (for severe reactions)


Support Groups:



Expectations (prognosis):

The condition continues over time (is chronic). It gets worse during certain seasons of the year, usually spring and summer. Treatment may provide relief.



Complications:
  • Continuing discomfort
  • Reduced vision
  • Scarring of cornea


Calling your health care provider:

Call your health care provider if your symptoms continue or get worse.



Prevention:

Using air conditioning or moving to a cooler climate may help prevent the problem from getting worse in the future.



References:

Rubenstein JB, Virasch V. Allergic conjunctivitis. In: Yanoff M, Duker JS, eds. Ophthalmology. 3rd ed. St. Louis, Mo: Mosby Elsevier;2008:chap 4.7.

Barney NP, Graziano FM, Cook EB, Stahl JL. Allergic and immunologic diseases of the eye. In: Adkinson NF, Jr., ed. Middleton's Allergy: Principles and Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier;2008:chap 64.

Sowka JW, Gurwood AS, Kabat AG. Handbook of Ocular Disease Management . Accessed May 19, 2010.




Review Date: 5/24/2010
Reviewed By: Linda J. Vorvick, MD, Medical Director, MEDEX Northwest Division of Physician Assistant Studies, University of Washington, School of Medicine; and Franklin W. Lusby, MD, Ophthalmologist, Lusby Vision Institute, La Jolla, California. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.

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