A synovial biopsy is the removal of a piece of tissue lining a joint. The tissue is called the synovial membrane.
Biopsy - synovial membrane
How the test is performed:
The test is usually done in the operating room with the use of arthroscopy .
The health care provider will inject a numbing medicine (local anesthetic) into the area. An instrument called a trocar is inserted into the joint space. This tool helps push fluid in and out of the area. A biopsy grasper is inserted through the trocar and turned to cut out a tissue segment.
The tools are removed. The biopsy site is cleaned. Pressure and a bandage are applied.
How to prepare for the test:
Tell your health care provider:
- If you are pregnant
- If you have any drug allergies
- If you have bleeding problems
- What medications you are taking (including any herbal medicines and supplements)
How the test will feel:
With the local anesthetic, you will feel a prick and a burning sensation. As the trocar is inserted, there will be some discomfort.
Why the test is performed:
Synovial biopsy helps diagnose gout , bacterial infections, or other infections, and may suggest the presence of inflammatory conditions such as autoimmune disorders.
The synovial membrane structure is normal.
What abnormal results mean:
Synovial biopsy may identify the following conditions:
The test may help diagnose rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases.
What the risks are:
There is a very slight chance of infection and bleeding. Rarely, there is a chance of the needle striking a nerve or blood vessel.
El-Gabalawy HS. Synovial fluid analysis, synovial biopsy, and synovial pathology. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Harris ED Jr., et al, eds. Kelley's Textbook of Rheumatology. 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier;2008:chap 48.
|Review Date: 7/28/2010|
Reviewed By: Linda J. Vorvick, MD, MEDEX Northwest Division of Physician Assistant Studies, University of Washington School of Medicine; and C. Benjamin Ma, MD, Assistant Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.
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