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Over-the-counter birth control

Definition:

Over-the-counter birth control methods are used during sex to avoid pregnancy and sometimes to prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Over-the-counter means that they can be purchased by anyone, without a doctor's prescription.

For more information about birth control options, see:



Alternative Names:

Birth control - over the counter; Contraceptives - over the counter



Information:

Over-the-counter birth control methods are not as effective against pregnancy as some prescription methods. However, they are more effective against STIs than any other method except not having intercourse (abstinence). They enable people to protect themselves against pregnancies and STIs without having to:

  • Deal with long-term side effects
  • Spend a lot of money
  • Wait for a doctor's appointment

CONDOMS

  • A male condom is a thin sheath placed on the penis. In the case of the female condom , the condom is placed inside the vagina before intercourse. Semen is collected inside the condom, which must be carefully held in place and then removed after intercourse.
  • About 14 pregnancies occur out of 100 couples using male condoms over 1 year. About 21 pregnancies occur out of 100 couples using female condoms. Condoms are more effective when spermicide is also used.
  • Condoms are available in most drug and grocery stores. Some family planning clinics may offer free condoms.
  • Latex condoms help prevent HIV and other STIs.

SPERMICIDES

  • Spermicides are chemical gels, foams, creams, or suppositories that kill sperm. They are inserted into the vagina before intercourse.
  • They can be purchased in most drug and grocery stores.
  • This method used by itself is not very effective. About 26 pregnancies occur out of 100 women using this method alone over 1 year. Therefore, spermicides are often combined with other methods (such as condoms or diaphragm) for extra protection.
  • Spermicides are generally combined with other methods (such as condoms or diaphragm) as extra protection.
  • Warning: The spermicide nonoxynol-9 can help prevent pregnancy, but also may increase the risk of HIV transmission.
  • Risks include irritation and allergic reactions.

VAGINAL SPONGE

  • Vaginal contraceptive sponges are soft artificial sponges covered with a spermicide. Before intercourse, the sponge is moistened, inserted into the vagina, and placed over the cervix . After intercourse, the sponge is left in place for 6 - 8 hours.
  • The sponge is similar to the diaphragm (which you must get from a doctor) as a barrier protection method.
  • About 18 - 28 pregnancies occur out of every 100 women using this method over 1 year. The sponge may be more effective in women who have not already given birth to a baby.
  • Risks include irritation, allergic reaction, trouble removing the sponge. In rare cases, toxic shock syndrome may occur.

EMERGENCY ("MORNING AFTER") BIRTH CONTROL

  • The "morning after" pill consists of two doses of hormone pills taken within 72 hours after unprotected intercourse.
  • The emergency contraceptive pill is available as either single pill (Plan B One-Step) or as two pills (Plan B, Next Choice). See: Emergency contraception


References:

Amy JJ, Tripathi V. Contraception for women: an evidence based overview. BMJ. 2009 Aug 7;339.




Review Date: 3/30/2010
Reviewed By: David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc., and Susan Storck, MD, FACOG, Chief, Eastside Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound, Redmond, Washington; Clinical Teaching Faculty, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington School of Medicine.

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